Herod the Great: Part IV-Timeline

In this part, I shall give a timeline of the life of Herod the Great.

73 BC Herod is born; Herod’s grandfather, who was a governor of  Idumaea, dies

64 BC Antipater (Antipatros), Herod’s father, meets Pompey in Syria

50 BC Aulus Gabinius, originally a tribune under Sulla, now a supporter of Pompey, is appointed to eastern command; Herod meets him

48 BC After the battle of Pharsalus, Julius Caesar confers citizenship upon Antipater; Herod thereby gains citizenship

47BC Herod is strategos of Galilee (the Hellenistic title originally meant general in Greek, by this time it was more of a gubernatorial position)

46 BC Herod flees to Syria due to unrest among Jews due to his ethnic background and opposition from the Synhedrion in Jerusalem; gains favor with Syria Governor, Sextus Julius Caesar, relative of Gaius Julius Caesar; Sextus Julius Caesar offers Herod position in Koile-Syria, but is assassinated;  Herod attaches himself to Gaius Cassius Longinus, the leading instigator of the plot to assassinate Gaius Julius Caesar

44 BC Gaius Julius Caesar is assassinated

43 BC Antipater is assassinated; Gaius Cassius Longinus helps Herod to avenge the death of his father and  proposes that Herod be King of Judea, but commits suicide at the Battle Philippi thinking that Brutus had lost the battle

42 BC Marcus Antonius arrives in Syria and names Herod Tetrarch

40 BC the events of 40 BC were chronicled in depth in Part III of this article

40-37 BC Civil War in Judea; Herod wins only with a great deal of assistance from Romans

37 BC Antigonos II eliminated as a claimant to throne

35 or 34 BC Hasmoneans instigate a revolt against Herod

32-31 BC War with Nabataeans

31 BC Earthquake in Judea and Civil War with Nabataeans prevents Herod from allying with Cleopatra and Marcus Antonius and fighting at Actium

30BC Herod swears loyalty to Octavian at Rhodes; Herod supplies logistical support to Octavian in his Egyptian Campaign; Octavian grants further lands to Herod’s kingdom

29-9 BC Herod’s great building campaign-rebuilding Samaria and renaming it Sebaste (Greek for Augustus), Herodium, Caesarea Maritima, Jerusalem, Nikopolis, and among other places

29 BC Herod executes his wife Mariamme for treason

23 BC Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (Augustus’ chosen heir apparent) is resident in Mytilene and becomes close friends with Herod

22 BC Augustus further expands Herod’s kingdom

20 BC Augustus meets Herod in Syria and further enlarges his kingdom; construction of the Temple in Jerusalem is begun

18 BC Herod dedicates Temple in Jerusalem; visits Rome as King; visits sons; is received by Augustus

15 BC Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa makes state visit to Judea; Agrippa asks Herod to aid him in expedition to Kimmerian Bosphorus, a triumphal tour of Asia Minor ensues

12 BC Herod named Agonothetes of the Olympic Games (after generous donations were made!); Herod visits Rome for third and last time

9 BC Caesarea Maritima is dedicated

7 BC Herod’s sons, Aristobulos and Alexandros, executed for conspiracy against the king

4BC Herod’s son, Antipatros, executed; Herod dies naturally (one of the few of his family to do so)

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